Contents

Contents tagged: primary health care

Feb. 1, 2016 Europe Publication

Evaluation of health care delivery integration: The case of the Russian Federation

This case study explores the current state of affairs within Russia's health system providing care for increasingly complex chronic conditions from the perspective of providers, namely physicians. A survey was developed by a group of experts and later distributed by the Russian center for public opinion research in August 2012. It focused on the interactions between providers at different levels of the health system often working in different organizational models such as primary care offices, polyspecialty clinics as well as hospitals. The survey focused on three areas crucial to integration, namely: teamwork, coordination and continuity of care. The results from the survey showed that the level of integration was low by nearly every measure across the different levels of the health system. The authors note that little emphasis has been placed on this issue since the 60/70's "when quite a lot of regulation was issued on district ...

June 2, 2015 Publication

Ouagadougou declaration on primary health care and health systems in Africa: achieving better health for Africa in the new millennium

The International Conference on Primary Health Care and Health Systems in Africa, meeting in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from 28 to 30 April 2008, reaffirms the principles of the Declaration of Alma-Ata of September 1978, particularly in regard to health as a fundamental human right and the responsibility that governments have for the health of their people. Having analysed the experience of Primary Health Care implementation in the countries of Africa in the last 30 years, the Conference expresses the need for accelerated action by African governments, partners and communities to improve health; the Conference, also reaffirming the importance of the involvement, participation and empowerment of communities in health development in order to improve their well-being; and recognizing the importance of a concerted partnership, in particular, civil society, private sector and development partners to translate commitments into action; hereby makes the following Declaration.

June 2, 2015 Publication

Declaration of Alma-Ata

The International Conference on Primary Health Care, meeting in Alma-Ata this twelfth day of September in the year Nineteen hundred and seventy-eight, expressing the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all the people of the world, hereby makes the following Declaration.

June 2, 2015 Publication

World health report 2008: primary health care; now more than ever

Why a renewal of primary health care (PHC), and why now, more than ever? Globalization is putting the social cohesion of many countries under stress, and health systems are clearly not performing as well as they could and should. People are increasingly impatient with the inability of health services to deliver. Few would disagree that health systems need to respond better – and faster – to the challenges of a changing world. PHC can do that.

June 1, 2015 Publication

Integrated health service delivery networks: concepts, policy options and a road map for implementation in the Americas

Health systems in the Americas are characterized by highly fragmented health services. Experience to date demonstrates that excessive fragmentation leads to difficulties in access to services, delivery of services of poor technical quality, irrational and inefficient use of available resources, unnecessary increases in production costs, and low user satisfaction with services received. (...) The region is home to several good practices in the creation of Integrated Health Service Delivery Networks (IHSDNs), especially in countries like Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and Cuba, which have traditionally supported the development of networks. Other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are adopting similar policies to organize their health services. Despite these efforts, addressing fragmentation and providing more equitable, comprehensive, integrated, and continuous health services remain significant challenges for the majority of countries in the Americas.

June 1, 2015 Publication

Policy relevant determinants of health: an international perspective

Background: International comparisons can provide clues to understanding some of the important policy-related determinants of health, including those related to the provision of health care services. An earlier study indicated that the strength of the primary care infrastructure of a health services system might be related to overall costs of health services. The purpose of the current research was to determine the robustness of the findings in the light of the passage of 5–10 years, the addition of two more countries, and the findings of other research on the possible importance of other determinants of country health levels. Methods: Thirteen industrialized countries, all with populations of at least 5 million, were characterized by the relative strength of their primary care infrastructure, the degree of national income inequality, and a major manifestation of a behavioral determinant of health that is amenable to policy intervention (smoking), using international data sets and ...

June 1, 2015 Publication

Primary health care: making Alma-Ata a reality

The principles agreed at Alma-Ata 30 years ago apply just as much now as they did then. “Health for all” by the year 2000 was not achieved, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015 will not be met in most low-income countries without substantial acceleration of primary health care. Factors have included insufficient political prioritisation of health, structural adjustment policies, poor governance, population growth, inadequate health systems, and scarce research and assessment on primary health care. We propose the following priorities for revitalising primary health care. Health-service infrastructure, including human resources and essential drugs, needs strengthening, and user fees should be removed for primary health-care services to improve use. A continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health services, including family planning, is needed. Evidence-based, integrated packages of community and primary curative and preventive care should be adapted to country contexts, assessed, and scaled up. Community participation and ...

June 1, 2015 Publication

Improving the prevention and management of chronic disease in low-income and middle-income countries: a priority for primary health care.

The burden of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and mental disorders is high in low-income and middle-income countries and is predicted to increase with the ageing of populations, urbanisation, and globalisation of risk factors. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming a chronic disorder. An integrated approach to the management of chronic diseases, irrespective of cause, is needed in primary health care. Management of chronic diseases is fundamentally different from acute care, relying on several features: opportunistic case finding for assessment of risk factors, detection of early disease, and identification of high risk status; a combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, often in a stepped-care fashion; and long-term follow-up with regular monitoring and promotion of adherence to treatment. To meet the challenge of chronic diseases, primary health care will have to be strengthened substantially. In the many countries with shortages of primary-care doctors, non-physician clinicians will have a ...