IPCHS. Integrated People-Centred Health Services

Contents

Contents tagged: equity in health

Dec. 4, 2019 South-East Asia Publication

Care providers, access to care, and the Long-term Care Nursing Insurance in China: An agent-based simulation

China piloted a publicly funded Long-term Care Nursing Insurance (LTCNI) with an aim to improve access to long-term care (LTC) for older people in China in 2012. Existing studies showed that the scheme has been successful in meeting some goals, but little is known on how the availability, price and quality of the local care providers affect access to care. This article founded considerable discrepancies in terms of access to services among the LTCNI beneficiaries. The poor are more likely to choose nursing home care with low costs albeit these services may be of poor quality. The demand for home-based services is high, but these services are not distributed according to population needs and are not available in some districts with high concentration of older people. 

Dec. 3, 2019 Americas Publication

Political struggles for a universal health system in Brazil: successes and limits in the reduction of inequalities

Brazil is a populous high/middle-income country, characterized by deep economic and social inequalities. Like most other Latin American nations, Brazil constructed a health system that included, on the one hand, public health programs and, on the other, social insurance healthcare for those working in the formal sector. This study analyzes the political struggles surrounding the implementation of a universal health system from the mid-1980s to the present, and their effects on selected health indicators, focusing on the relevant international and national contexts, political agendas, government orientations and actors.

Nov. 29, 2019 South-East Asia Publication

Factors Associated with Enrolment of Households in Nepal’s National Health Insurance Program

Nepal has made remarkable efforts towards social health protection over the past several years. In 2016, the Government of Nepal introduced a National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) with an aim to ensure equitable and universal access to healthcare by all Nepalese citizens. Following the first year of operation, the scheme has covered 5 percent of its target population. There are wider concerns regarding the capacity of NHIP to achieve adequate population coverage and remain viable. In this context, this study aimed to identify the factors associated with enrolment of households in the NHIP.

Sept. 11, 2019 Americas Publication

Impact of health care reform on enrolment of immigrants in primary care in Ontario, Canada

Health is driven by the conditions in which people live and work. Immigrant populations face many challenges and disruptions in living conditions during their settlement process, including the loss of regular health services. Establishing a direct relationship with a family physician is an important aspect of the settlement process for immigrant populations

In 2003, Ontario introduced a patient enrolment system as part of health care reforms, aimed at enhancing primary health care services, but it is unclear whether immigrants have benefited from this health care reform. Therefore, this article studied whether this reform changed the extent of immigrants’ enrolment in primary care services in Ontario between 2003 and 2012.

Jan. 18, 2019 Global Publication

How Equity-Oriented Health Care Affects Health: Key Mechanisms and Implications for Primary Health Care Practice and Policy

Significant attention has been directed toward addressing health inequities at the population health and systems levels, yet little progress has been made in identifying approaches to reduce health inequities through clinical care, particularly in a primary health care context. Although the provision of equity?oriented health care (EOHC) is widely assumed to lead to improvements in patients’ health outcomes, little empirical evidence supports this claim. To remedy this, this study tested whether more EOHC predicts more positive patient health outcomes and identified selected mediators of this relationship

Nov. 7, 2018 Global Publication

Community health workers and accountability: reflections from an international “think-in”

Community health workers (CHWs) are frequently put forward as a remedy for lack of health system capacity, including challenges associated with health service coverage and with low community engagement in the health system, and expected to enhance or embody health system accountability. During a ‘think in’, held in June of 2017, a diverse group of practitioners and researchers discussed the topic of CHWs and their possible roles in a larger “accountability ecosystem.” While CHWs are often conceptualized as cogs in a mechanistic health delivery system, at the end of the day, CHWs are people embedded in families, communities, and the health system. CHWs’ social position and professional role influence how they are treated and trusted by the health sector and by community members, as well as when, where, and how they can exercise agency and promote accountability. To that end, this study put forward several propositions for further conceptual development ...

Sept. 21, 2018 Europe Publication

Equity in access to care in the era of health system reforms in Turkey

The aim of this study was to evaluate access to healthcare from an equity perspective on the way toward Universal Health Coverage in Turkey. In order to  The country representative data from 2006 to 2013 Turkey Income and Living Conditions Surveys were analyzed. Private household residents aged fifteen and older were asked for self-reported unmet need for medical care in the past twelve months. 

July 27, 2018 Africa Publication

Priority setting for health in the context of devolution in Kenya: implications for health equity and community-based primary care

Devolution changes the locus of power within a country from central to sub-national levels. In 2013, Kenya devolved health and other services from central government to 47 new sub-national governments (known as counties). This transition seeks to strengthen democracy and accountability, increase community participation, improve efficiency and reduce inequities. With changing responsibilities and power following devolution reforms, comes the need for priority-setting at the new county level. Priority-setting arises as a consequence of the needs and demand for healthcare resources exceeding the resources available, resulting in the need for some means of choosing between competing demands

July 3, 2018 Americas, Western Pacific Publication

Lessons for achieving health equity comparing Aotearoa/New Zealand and the United States

Aotearoa/New Zealand (Aotearoa/NZ) and the United States (U.S.) suffer inequities in health outcomes by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. This paper compares both countries’ approaches to health equity to inform policy efforts. They developed a conceptual model that highlights how government and private policies influence health equity by impacting the healthcare system (access to care, structure and quality of care, payment of care), and integration of healthcare system with social services

Oct. 3, 2017 Europe Publication

The State of Health Care Integration in Estonia

This paper summarizes an assessment of the state of health care integration in Estonia and its driving forces. In the absence of a widely accepted definition, this study defines health care integration as:

i) the delivery of care in the appropriate care setting and

ii) coordination and continuity of care across care settings.


The study focuses on integration issues related to the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, with particular attention to the role and functioning of primary care and equity issues. The findings of this analysis therefore do not provide a comprehensive assessment of quality within specific care settings (i.e., primary care, acute inpatient care, etc.), nor of overall health system performance. Yet, they constitute one of several inputs that may be relevant for future policy changes.

These study findings are based on a quantitative analysis of health insurance claims data plus stakeholder interviews and focus group discussions ...

Feb. 10, 2016 Africa Publication

Exploring perceptions of community health policy in Kenya and identifying implications for policy change

BACKGROUND:

Global interest and investment in close-to-community health services is increasing. Kenya is currently revising its community health strategy (CHS) alongside political devolution, which will result in revisioning of responsibility for local services. This article aims to explore drivers of policy change from key informant perspectives and to study perceptions of current community health services from community and sub-county levels, including perceptions of what is and what is not working well. It highlights implications for managing policy change.

METHODS:

We conducted 40 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with a range of participants to capture plural perspectives, including those who will influence or be influenced by CHS policy change in Kenya (policymakers, sub-county health management teams, facility managers, community health extension worker (CHEW), community health workers (CHWs), clients and community members) in two purposively selected counties: Nairobi and Kitui. Qualitative data were digitally recorded, transcribed, translated and coded before ...