Nepal has made remarkable efforts towards social health protection over the past several years. In 2016, the Government of Nepal introduced a National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) with an aim to ensure equitable and universal access to healthcare by all Nepalese citizens. Following the first year of operation, the scheme has covered 5 percent of its target population. There are wider concerns regarding the capacity of NHIP to achieve adequate population coverage and remain viable. In this context, this study aimed to identify the factors associated with enrolment of households in the NHIP.