The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted systems of care for infectious diseases—including tuberculosis—and has exposed pervasive inequities that have long marred efforts to combat these diseases. The resulting health disparities often intersect at the individual and community levels in ways that heighten vulnerability to tuberculosis. Effective responses to tuberculosis (and other infectious diseases) must respond to these realities. Unfortunately, current tuberculosis programmes are generally not designed from the perspectives of affected individuals and fail to address structural determinants of health disparities. We describe a person-centred, equity-oriented response that would identify and focus on communities affected by disparities, tailor interventions to the mechanisms by which disparities worsen tuberculosis, and address upstream determinants of those disparities.